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Air temperature measurements using autonomous self-recording dataloggers in mountainous and snow covered areas
Title: Air temperature measurements using autonomous self-recording dataloggers in mountainous and snow covered areas
Authors: Navarro-Serrano, FranciscoLópez Moreno, Juan IgnacioAzorín Molina, CésarBuisán Sanz, Samuel Tomás ORCID RESEARCHERID SCOPUSID Autor AEMETDomínguez Castro, FernandoSanmiguel-Vallelado, A.Alonso González, EstebanKhorchani, Makki
Keywords: Air temperature; Temperature logger; Radiation shield; Snow Complex terrain; SPICE
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Atmospheric Research. 2019, 224, p. 168-179
Publisher version:
Abstract: High mountain areas are poorly represented by official weather observatories. It implies that new instruments must be evaluated over snow-covered and strongly insolated environments (i.e. mid-latitude mountain areas). We analyzed uncertainty sources over snow covered areas including: 1) temperature logger accuracy and bias of two widely used temperature sensors (Tinytag and iButton); 2) radiation shield performance under various radiation, snow, and wind conditions; 3) appropriate measurement height over snow covered ground; and 4) differences in air temperature measured among nearby devices over a horizontal band. The major results showed the following. 1) Tinytag performance device (mean absolute error: MAE≈ 0.1–0.2°C in relation to the reference thermistor) was superior to the iButton (MAE≈ 0.7°C), which was subject to operating errors. 2) Multi-plate radiation shield showed the best performance under all conditions (> 90% samples has bias between ±0.5°C). The tube shield required wind (> 2.5ms⁠−1) for adequate performance, while the funnel shield required limited radiation (< 400Wm⁠−2). Snow cover causes certain overheating. 3) Air temperatures were found to stabilize at 75–100cm above the snow surface. Air temperature profile was more constant at night, showing a considerable cooling on near surface at midday. 4) Horizontal air temperature differences were larger at midday (0.5°C). These findings indicate that to minimize errors air temperature measurements over snow surfaces should be carried out using multi-plate radiation shields with high-end thermistors such as Tinytags, and be made at a minimum height above the snow covered ground.
Sponsorship : This study was funded by the research projects “El papel de la nieve en la hidrología de la peninsula ibérica y su respuesta a procesos de cambio global-HIDROIBERNIEVE-CGL2017-82216-R” and CLIMPY “Characterization of the evolution of climate and provision of information for adaptation in the Pyrenees” (FEDER-POCTEFA).
ISSN: 0169-8095
Appears in Collections:Artículos científicos 2019-2022

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