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An empirical equation to estimate mineral dust concentrations from visibility observations in Northern Africa
|An empirical equation to estimate mineral dust concentrations from visibility observations in Northern Africa
|Camino, Carlos ; Cuevas Agulló, Emilio ; Basart, Sara ; Alonso Pérez, Silvia; Baldasano, José María; Terradellas, Enric ; Marticorena, Beatrice; Rodríguez González, Sergio ; Berjón, Alberto
|PM10; Visibility; Mineral dust; MODIS-AQUA; Dust transport model
|Aeolian Research. 2015, 16, p. 55-68
|This paper presents a new empirical equation relating horizontal visibility and PM10 dust concentrations. The new empirical equation (IZO-Eq) is derived from observations performed at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (IZO, 28.30ºN, 16.49ºW, 2367 m a.s.l., Tenerife, Spain), recorded during Saharan dust outbreaks from 2003 to 2010. A filter based on relative humidity, present-weather and aerosol optical properties is applied to identify dust events. IZO-Eq is validated in the Sahel region during the dry and wet seasons (2006-2008) using data from two PM10 monitoring stations from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) International project, and data from the nearest meteorological synoptic stations. The estimated PM10 derived from IZO-Eq is compared against that those obtained by other empirical equations and dust surface concentrations from NMMB/BSC-Dust model. IZO-Eq presents better performance than the other equations in both dry and wet seasons when compared with observed PM10 at two Sahelian sites. IZO-Eq is also able to reproduce the surface concentration variability simulated by NMMB/BSC-Dust. Above 10 km of horizontal visibility, empirical equations cannot be used to estimate PM10, since above this threshold equations estimate a nearly constant PM10 value, regardless of the visibility range. A comparison between the PM10 spatial distributions derived from visibility SYNOP observations through IZO-Eq, the modelled values from the NMMB/BSC-Dust model and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from MODIS is performed for the 2006-2008 period. The different spatial distributions present a rather good agreement among them as well as to reproduce the characteristic seasonal dust features over North Africa.
|The present work was carried out in the framework of the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC-II) project under the European Union Seventh Research Framework Program (Grant Agreement Number 283576), and as part of the activities of the World Meteorological Organization Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System Regional Center for Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe. Part of this study was performed within the frame of POLLINDUST project CGL2011-26259; Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain. The authors thank the AERONET program. MODIS data used in this paper were obtained from the Giovanni online data system, developed and maintained by the NASA GES DISC. NMMB/BSC-Dust simulations were performed on the Mare Nostrum supercomputer hosted by Barcelona Supercomputing Center-Centro Nacional de Supercomputacion (BSC-CNS) Grant SEV-2011-00067 of Severo Ochoa Program, awarded by the Spanish Government. Based on a French initiative, AMMA was developed by an international scientific group and funded by a large number of agencies, especially from Africa, European Community, France, UK and USA.
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|Artículos científicos 2015-2018
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